The Tokugawa stimulated the development and maintenance of land routes within the country as a way to facilitate duty and business travel.
As restrictions on movement eased, the same routes also became popular among recreational travellers. A system of five major highways (Gokaidō) connected Edo with the north-eastern, central, and south-western areas of the Honshū island. Tokugawa was apparent through an array of road infrastructure. Ichirizuka (distance markers) in the form of stones were positioned every ri (a distance of roughly 4 km). Bridges and other river-crossings were built wherever governmental security policies, weather, and topographical conditions allowed it. 248 shukuba (post-stations) were positioned at regular intervals along the highways. Functioning as rest stops, transport centres, information and communications centres, and recreation areas they offered eating and drinking establishments, and shops selling speciality products.
Some navigable rivers also offered alternative routes.
Coastal sea routes were used for rapid shipments for oversized product and to connect the main islands of the Japanese archipelago with smaller ones. Along the Tōkaidō eastern sea road, ferry services were put in place at some coastal post-stations, allowing travellers to cross sea straits and shorten their journeys.